This fact sheet gives an overview of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF).  It discusses how SNF is safely and effectively managed in the United States, the potential innovative solutions for long-term disposal of SNF, and the characterization of SNF from advanced reactors.  

This fact sheet gives the case for why we need advanced nuclear energy. It discusses the many benefits advanced nuclear energy has to offer and why we need them to meet our energy security and net-zero emissions goals. 

Multiple advanced reactor developers have announced domestic demonstration projects to be built in the 2020s. These nuclear reactors will provide the licensing, construction, and operational basis for rapid commercial expansion of advanced nuclear energy in the late 2020s and early 2030s. Technology, business, and regulatory lessons learned from first-of-a-kind (FOAK) projects will facilitate lower costs and shorter construction timelines for subsequent nth-of-a-kind (NOAK) reactors due to wide-scale deployment and technological learning. Utilities and other customers that gain early experience with FOAK or early NOAK projects will be in competitive positions to become technology leaders. Property of the Nuclear Innovation Alliance (NIA). For more information about advanced reactor deployments, please contact

This primer provides basic information on advanced reactors to help the public and stakeholders understand the promise of innovative nuclear technologies. Dozens are under development around the world; this primer focuses on those in the United States and Canada.

This document was originally released in September 2021. The document was last updated in March 2023.